Some Papers by Edward Morey

*Unless otherwise specified, the papers available online are in .pdf format and can be read with the Adobe Acrobat Reader

The list of available papers will keep growing, so keep checking. Any comments on any of the papers would be greatly appreciated. You can email comments in Word, Scientific Word, Latex, and pdf, or send a hard copy by mail. Thanks.

If you encounter any font, viewing, or download problems, let me know.

The data for many of these papers can be found at datasets.

This page is divided into three sections: Discussion papers online, Published papers available online, and Reports online

Discussion papers online

If you want to be happy for the rest of your life: like what you want, and want what you will like

Edward Morey

comments hoped for


A compensating variation for a change in the level of an environmental amenity does not exist if the kinds of well-being produced by it are not comparable with the kinds of WB produced by one or more other goods or activities

Edward Morey, Nov. 6 2020

This replaces, "A reason to worry about non-market valuation: WB-incommensurability: Can you compare your relief from less global warming with more anxiety at work? The loss of a friendship? Or even the pleasure of chocolate cake?

Abstract: The neoclassical choice-theory that supports the monetary valuation of environmental resources assumes you have a complete ordering of bundles in terms of well-being, WB. But there are different kinds of WB (and ill-being): pleasurable and unpleasant sensations, and positive and negative thoughts and emotions. So, the existence of a complete ordering based on a monotonic index of the different kinds of WB (e.g. “utility”) requires that all the different kinds of WB (and ill-being) are WB-commensurable (you can, e.g., compare the pleasures of chocolate with global-warming angst). But many/most people, including ecological economists, don’t believe the kinds of WB produced by environmental amenities are all WB-commensurable with those produced by other goods and amenities. I show that, if they are correct, a compensating variation, CV, for an environmental policy often does not exist: it is a meaningless construct. Then, arguments and findings for and against complete WB-commensurability are presented in the context of the environment.

Keywords: compensating variation (CV), valuation, well-being (WB) and bearers-of-WB, WB-incomparable and WB-incommensurable, WB/bearer separability, neuroeconomics, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

Can economici choose? Can homo sapiens?

Edward Morey, April 19.2020

This replaces, "What is a choice? Choice or the illusion of choice? Should we care?"

Abstract: While the neoclassical theory of behavior is called choice theory, the behavior of an economicus (an entity that adheres to the assumptions) is out of its control: its ranking of bundles and which are feasible are both exogenous, so is the rule that it must experience its highest-ranked feasible bundle. Neoclassical behavior theory (NBT) would be a more appropriate name. An economicus has only feeble free-will, and its behavior is deterministic in a more restrictive manner than philosophers’ sense of determinism. Advocates of neoclassical choice theory (NCT) are a subspecies of compatibilists: behavior is “compatible” with free will, but it’s weak. Humans also live in a deterministic world (with some randomness?), unless you believe in dualism, so only have feeble free-will, no more than worms and mollusks. But! Humans have choosing experiences (cogitating about A vs. B, and deciding on B) and then experiencing B. Isn’t that choosing? No! Mounting evidence in psychology and neuroscience indicates that what humans do (how we behave) is determined by an unconscious processes, and the choosing experience doesn’t determine what we select.

Comments hoped for

Using choice experiments and latent-class modeling to investigate and estimate how academic economists value and trade off the attributes of academic positions, November, 2012

Edward Morey and Jennifer Thacher


From travel-cost models to moral philosophy, September 25, 2009

Edward Morey


Discreet choice models and discrete-choice models: the hyphen is a short dash to clarity, March 13, 2006

Edward Morey

"For an extra-marital affair (as compared to an extra marital affair), one might want to consider a discreet choice model; since choice, they must be either beautiful or

handsome, there is the cachet of sex with a model, and they won't tell your spouse. In contrast, if you prefer to spend your time modeling discrete choices, ......."

Ax murdering and wash your hands after using the toilet: a contrite/confused economist, March 2004.

 If you would like to post a comment on this paper, or a comment or a comment, please send them in an email. To see the posted comments go to comments on ax murdering.

Some of the classic readings on externality theory can be found on my externality literature web page

Using the expected expenditure formula to calculate the exact expected compensating variation in GEV random utility models with income effects
Anders Karlstrom and Edward Morey, May 04.
Also see our web page for using the expected expenditure formula

Valuing and Preserving Site-Specific Cultural Resources in Italy: Some of the Issues Nov 7, 2001.


Combining Responses to Actual and hypothetical Offers to Estimate WTA for Highly-Polluting Clunkers: Ordered Probit with Distinct, Noisy and Biased Bounds: June 1999,
Edward R.Morey and Tymon Lodder

 Published papers available online


Welfare economics

Edward R. Morey

Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics. Springer

forthcoming 2021

When choosing where to recreate, personality is key

Colorado Art and Science Magazine: March 5, 2018 • By Clay Evans

Economist’s work is challenging traditional recreational choice theory by suggesting that who one recreates with is an important determinant of where one recreates.

What are the ethics of welfare economics? And, are welfare economists utilitarians?

Edward R. Morey

International Review of Economics, April 13, 2018

Abstract: Four questions: (1) What is welfare economics? (2) Is it an ethical system? (3) How do welfare economists differ from one another? And (4), how do they differ from other economic ethicists? Then utilitarianism is discussed. I was taught, and have inferred to others, that welfare economists are utilitarians. They are not. Welfare economics is an atypical form of welfare consequentialism: consequentialist in that whether an act or policy is right or wrong is a function of only its consequences—the adjective “welfare” because the only consequences that matter are the welfare (well-faring) consequences. Most welfare consequentialists are neither welfare economists nor utilitarians. And, most moral philosophers are not welfarel consequentialists—neither are most normal folk.

Keywords welfare economics, utilitarianism (Benthamite, act, rule, and preference) ,·welfare consequentialism (WC) , well-being (WB), emotional WB, life-satisfaction WB, preferences, interests, Impartiality, fairness, justice, loyalty, holiness, · Jeremy Bentham, John Harsanyi, Peter Singer

Can your personality explain where and with whom you recreate? A latent-class site-choice model informed by estimates from a mixed-mode LC cluster model with latent-personality traits, Ecological Economics 138 (2017) 223-237.

Edward Morey and Mara Thiene

keywords: latent traits, personality, sensation seeking, extroversion, competitiveness, mixed-model latent-class cluster model, ordinal, nominal and cardinal indicators, latent-class choice model

additional tables not in the paper

Abstract: We test and find that personality traits interact with site characteristics and the ability of a potential companion to determine where, and with whom you recreate. 4605 mountain bikers chose between multiple pairs of hypothetical mountain-bike rides, and, in addition, answered Likert-scale questions on sensationseeking,competitiveness and extroversion. For each personality trait, a mixed-mode latent-class cluster model was estimated, accounting for that fact that the indicators can have ordinal, cardinal or nominal meaning. Most LC models ignore these distinctions. Our model also allows the scores on questions to be correlated, even after conditioning on class (typically assumed away). Then, a latent-class choice model of trail attributes and companion’s ability was estimated using the choice-pair data, with the estimated latent personality-traits as covariates. Three choice classes are identified and the odds of being in each varies by personality: estimated choice probabilities and WTP estimates vary significantly and substantially by class and personality type.

On the adequacy of scope test results, Ecological Economics 130 (Oct 2016): 356-60.

D.J. Chapman, R.C. Bishop, W.M. Hanemann, B.J. Kanninen, J.A. Krosnick, E.R. Morey and R. Tourangeau

Abstract: Desrvousges et al. (2012) investigate criteria for judging the adequacy of scope test differences in contingent valuation studies. They focus particular attention on our study (Chapman et al. 2009), arguing that, while it demonstrated a statistically significant scope effect, the effect is too small. Unfortunately, DMT misinterpreted Chapman et al., an error that makes DMT's criticisms of our study invalid.

It's not where you do it, it's who you do it with? Journal of Choice Modeling 5(2012) 176-191.

Edward Morey and David Kritzberg


A parsimonious, latent-class methodology for predicting behavioral heterogeneity in terms of life-constraint heterogeneity,

Edward Morey and Mara Thiene

Ecological Economics 74 (2012) 130-144


A joint latent-class model: combining Likert-scale preference statements with choice data to harvest preference heterogneity

Bill Breffle, Edward Morey, Jennifer Thacher


Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol. 50(1). 83-110, 2011.

data and programs available at

Using Attitudinal Data to Identify Latent Classes that Vary in Their Preference for Landscape Preservation,

Edward Morey, Mara Thiene, Maria De Salvo and Giovanni Signorello

Ecological Economics, Vol. 68(1-2), 536-546, December 2008.


Patient preferences for depression treatment programs and willingness to pay for treatment

Edward R. Morey, Jennifer A. Thacher, and W. Edward Craighead

The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 10, 87-99, 2007


Calculating, with income effects, the compensating variation for a state change

Edward R. Morey, and Kathleen Greer Rossmann
Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol. 39(2), 83-90, February, 2008

Using Patient Characteristics and Attitudinal Data to Identify Depression Treatment Preference Groups: A Latent-Class Model

Jennifer Thacher, Edward Morey and Edward Craighead


Depression and Anxiety Vol. 21(2): 47-54, 2005

Valuing a change in a fishing site without collecting charactristics data on all fishing sites: a complete but minimal model

Edward Morey and B. Breffle


American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 88 (1): 150-161, 2006

Using Angler Characteristics and Attitudinal Data to Identify Environmental Preference Classes: A Latent-Class Model, May 2006

Edward Morey, Jennifer Thacher, and B. Breffle

Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol 34(1), 91-115, May 2006


data and programs available soon

See also A Discussion of “Using Angler Characteristics and Attitudinal Data to Identify Environmental Preference Classes: A Latent-Class Model”, Provencher and Moore, Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol 34(1), 117-124, May 2006

Gaussian Quadrature versus Simulation for the Estimation of Random Parameters: Some Evidence from Stated Preference Recreational Choice Data, August 30, 2004

William S. Breffle, Edward R. Morey, and Donald M. Waldman
forthcoming in Applications of Simulation Methods in Environmental and Resource Economics, A. Alberini and R. Scarpa, eds., Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
See also our web page with data and code to estimate random-parameters models with both simulation and quadrature

Combining Stated-Choice Questions with Observed Behavior to Value NRDA Compensable Damages: Greenbay, PCBs and Fish Consumption Advisories

William Breffle, Edward R. Morey, Robert D. Rowe, and Donald M. Waldman

The Handbook of Contingent Valuation (J. Kahn and A. Alberini, Eds.), Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. ISBN13 978 1 84064 208 7. March 2006.

Using Stated-Preference Questions to Investigate Variations in Willingness to Pay for Preserving Marble Monuments: Classic Heterogeneity, Random Parameters, and Mixture Models

Edward R. Morey, and Kathleen Greer Rossmann
Journal of Cultural Economics, Vol. 27 (3/4), 2-5-229, November 2003. Winner of the Werner Pommerehne prize for best paper in the JCE
The data amd estimation programs used in this study can be found on my data web page.

Estimating Malaria Patients' Household Compensating Variations for Health Care Proposals in Nepal
Edward R.Morey, Vijaya Sharma, and Anne Mills
Social Science and Medicine 57 (2003) 155-165.
The data used in this study can be found on my data web page.

A simple method of incorporating income effects into Logit and Nested-Logit models: theory and application
Edward R. Morey, Vijaya R. Sharma, and Anders Karlstrom
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85(1), 250-255, February 2003.
The data used in this study can be found on my data web page.

Estimating Recreational Trout Fishing Damages in Montana's Clark Fork River Basin: Summary of a Natural Resource Damage Assessment

Edward R. Morey, W.S. Breffle, R.D. Rowe and D. Waldman

Journal of Environmental Management 66(2), 159-170. Reprinted in The New Economics Of Outdoor Recreation (N. Hanley, Douglass Shaw and R. Wright, Eds.), Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. 2003.



  Estimating the Benefits and Costs to Mountain Bikers of Changes in Trail Characteristics, Access Fees, and Site Closures: Choice Experiments and Benefits Transfer:
Edward R.Morey, Terry Buchanan, and Donald M. Waldman
Journal of Environmental Management 64(4), 411-422, 2002
The data used in this study can be found on my data web page.

Modeling and estimating WTP for reducing acid deposition injuries to cultural resources: using choice experiments in a group setting to estimate passive-use values:
Edward R.Morey, Kathleen Rossmann, Lauraine Chestnut and Shannon Ragland. Chapter 7 in "Valuing Cultural Heritage," (Stale Narvud and Richard Ready, Eds.), Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. 2002.
This paper summarizes and extends the work in "Valuing Acid Deposition Injuries to Cultural Resouces" - see below
The data used in this study can be found on my data web page.

Two Nested Constant-Elasticity-of-Substitution Models of Recreational Participation and Site Choice:
An "Alternatives" Model and an "Expenditures" Model:
Edward R.Morey, William Breffle, and Pamela Greene
American Journal of Agricultural Economics. Vol 83, Issue 2, pp 414-427, May 2001.
The data used in this study can be found on my data web page.

  Joint Estimation of Catch and Other Travel-Cost Parameters: Some Further Thoughts
Edward R. Morey and Donald M. Waldman
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Vol. 40, 82-85, 2000
see also the next entry

Measurement Error in Recreation Demand Models: The Joint Estimation of Participation, Site Choice and Site Characteristics
Edward Morey and Donald Waldman
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 35, 262-276,1998
see also the previous entry

TWO RUMs unCLOAKED: Nested-Logit Models of Site Choice and
Nested-Logit Models of Participation and Site Choice
Chapter 4 in "Valuing the Environment Using Recreation Demand Models,"
(C.L. Kling and H. Herriges, Eds.), Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. 1999

Using Contingent Valuation to Estimate a Neighborhood's Willingness to Pay to Preserve Undeveloped Urban Land
William S. Breffle, Edward R. Morey, and Tymon S. Lodder
Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 4, 715-72, February 1998

Investigating Preference Heterogeneity in a Repeated Discrete-Choice Recreation Demand Model of Atlantic Salmon Fishing:
William Breffle and Edward R.Morey
Marine Resource Economics, Volume 15, pp. 1-20.
The data used in this study can be found on my data web page.
Searching for a model of multiple-site recreation demand that admits interior and boundary solutions
Morey. E.R., D. Waldman, D. Assane and D. Shaw
American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 77 (1), February 1995, pp. 129-140.
A Repeated Nested-Logit Model of Atlantic Salmon Fishing with Comparisons to Six Other Travel-Cost Models
Morey. E.R., R. Rowe and M. Watson
American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 75 (3), August 1993, pp. 578-592.

Competition in Regional Environmental Policies When Plant Locations are Endogenous
Markusen, J., E.R. Morey and N. Olewiler
Journal of Public Economics. Vol 56, February 1995, pp. 55-77.

Environmental Policy when Market Structure and Plant Locations Are Endogenous

James R. Markusen, Edward R. Morey, Nancy D. Olewiler

Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1993, pp. 69-86 (available online at




What Is Consumer's Surplus Per Day of Use, When Is It a Constant Independent of the Number of Days of Use, and What Does It Tell Us about Consumers Surplus?
Edward R. Morey
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 26, No. 3, May 1994, pp. 257-270.

Separability, Partial Demand Systems and Consumer's Surplus Measures
Hanemann, M., and E.R. Morey
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. Vol. 22, 1992, pp. 241-258.

Oil characteristics and the U.S. demand for foreign crude by region of origin

Kohli, U. and E.R. Morey
Atlantic Economic Journal, Vol. 18 (3), 1990, pp. 55-67.
no abstract

An introduction to checking, testing and imposing curvature properties: the true function and the estimated function

E.R. Morey
Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 19 (2), May 1986, pp. 207-235.

The U.S. demand for foreign crude: a translog approach

Kohli, U. and E.R. Morey
The Journal of Energy and Development, Vol. 11 (2), Autumn 1986, pp. 115-133.
no abstract
Characteristics, Consumer Surplus and New Activities: A Proposed Ski Area
Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 26 (2), March 1985, 221-236.

Desertification: An Economic Perspective
Jointly published in Ricerche Economiche, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1985, 550-560., and The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 55, 1986, 101-110.

Confuser Surplus
American Economic Review, Vol. 74, No. 1, 163-173, March 1984,
no abstract available

The Choice of Ski Areas: Estimation of a Generalized CES Preference Ordering with Characteristics
The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 66, No. 4, 584-590, November 1984,

The Demand for Site-Specific Recreational Activities: A Characteristics Approach

Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 8 (No. 4), December 1981, 245-271.


Fishery Economics: An Introduction and Review

Natural Resources Journal, Vol. 20 (No. 4), October 1980, 827-851.


Recreational Fishing Damages from Fish Consumption Advisories in the Waters of Green Bay November 1, 1999
William S. Breffle, Edward R. Morey, Robert D. Rowe, Donald M. Waldman, and Sonya M. Wytinck
Prepared by Stratus Consulting Inc. for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of Interior, and the U.S. Department of Justice.

Valuing Acid Deposition Injuries to Cultural Resources: May 14, 1997
*Note that this report consists of html documents rather than pdf documents.
Prepared for National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program by Edward Morey and Kathleen Greer Rossmann, University of Colorado at Boulder, and Lauraine Chestnut and Shannon Ragland, Hagler Bailly Inc.

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